Vocational And Technical Education Policy in Bangladesh :
Vocational And Technical Education : Aims and Objectives:
Each and everyday, developing countries are facing unequal and aggressive competition in the world of business, transport, marketing of products, export of skilled manpower and communication in the international market. For a developing country like Bangladesh, opportunities for economic development will be created in this state of unequal competition and the value of physical labour will be enhanced.
So highest importance will be given to turn our students into competent manpower through vocational and technical education with an emphasis on science, technology and especially on information technology. It is noteworthy that at present, in the rural areas of Bangladesh, expansion of science and technology is reaching out very fast from agriculture and farming to sugarcane threshing machines, rice mills, communication sector,
supply of electricity, power looms, etc.
The country needs to develop in these sectors including Information and Communication Technology (ICT). It needs competent manpower to meet up internal needs. Moreover, there is a high demand of skilled manpower abroad and this will gradually increase over the coming years. And export of skilled manpower can increase our foreign currency earning.
Development programs will be undertaken to build up competent manpower in view of national and international demands. The aims and objectives of vocational and technical education are:
· to increase competent manpower in diverse sectors including Information and Communication Technology at a fast pace keeping in mind the national and international demands;
· to build up skilled manpower at a fast pace to create opportunities of economic development and to increase dignity of labour;
· to create wide-ranging employment opportunities through export of skilled manpower and to enhance foreign currency earnings.
1. Pre-vocational and Information Communication Technology education will be introduced in every stream of primary education to create skilled manpower. All students of primary level must complete 8-year cycle with pre-vocational and ICT courses as included in the curricula of Classes VI to VIII.
2. On completion of Class VIII, a student can enroll in vocational/technical education. Facilities will be created for the students of this stream so that they can gradually go up for higher education in their desired technical subjects.
3. On completion of Class VIII, some students may opt out of mainstream education. But they can take up a 6 months’ vocational training program. Then they will be considered to have acquired National Standard of Skills-
1. By completing Classes IX, X and XII in vocational and technical education, one can attain respectively National Standard of Skills 2, 3 and 4.
4. On completion of Class VIII, one can undergo vocational training of 1, 2 and 4 years to be coordinated by mills, factories, and government technical institutes or nongovernment
vocational training institutes situated in the upazillas and districts and thereby earn National Standard of Skills 2, 3 and 4.
5. SSC graduates and students having certificates of National Standard of Skills 4 are eligible for admission in various diploma programs by coordinating credits. These programs include Diploma in Engineering/ Business Management (XI-XII)/Diploma in Commerce (XI-XII) and courses of similar standard. But priority will be given to the students who have degrees in vocational education.
6. Students having technical diplomas will be eligible for admission in Bachelor program of different and relevant courses (such as Engineering, Textiles and Agriculture etc.) through some tests and coordination of credits.
8. In every curriculum of vocational and technical education, highest importance will be given to achieving proper competencies. Computer and ICT will be included as compulsory subjects in vocational and technical education curricula.
9. Apprenticeship program will be introduced nation-wide. The Apprenticeship Act 1962 will be updated and revised.
10. Special attention will be given to the students with disabilities to ensure their participation in the vocational and technical education.
11. Hands-on training within mills and factories on the subjects studied will be compulsory for teachers of all levels. To ensure training for every teacher of vocational and technical education, posts/seats in VTTI and TTTC will be increased and if necessary, the number of such institutes will also be increased.
12. Adequate number of relevant books in Bangla will be authored, translated and published to facilitate vocational and technical education.
13. In every upazilla, one technical education institute will be established for the expansion of technical education. Besides, the number of polytechnic institutes, textile institutes, and leather institutes will be increased.
14. The vocational and technical institutes offering secondary level vocational education will provide courses on technical, agricultural and business studies.
15. All technical and vocational education institutes of the country will be put under the control of the Technical Education Directorate to consolidate this education stream. Technical Education Directorate will be further empowered and funds and manpower will be made available as per necessity.
16. Government budget will be allocated on priority basis in the sector of vocational and technical education.
17. Appropriate steps will be taken to fill in the vacant posts in vocational and technical institutes.
18. Public-private partnership collaboration will be encouraged to establish new technical and vocational institutes and to develop their management. But boys and girls belonging to insolvent families will have opportunities to study in these institutions.
19. Technical and vocational institutions can run two shifts for Diploma in Engineering and other diploma courses in order to ensure the highest use of their infrastructure and other facilities. But attention will be given to maintain quality and to ensure standard contact hours.
20. School leavers and elderly people can be turned into competent manpower by designing evening and short courses of vocational or diploma curricula with the use of the facilities of vocational education institutes.
21. Students unable to study beyond Class VIII or those who discontinue after any level of secondary education for sundry reasons (economic or familial) will be motivated to undertake vocational or technical courses and to complete the courses. Necessary stipends will be given to them as financial help. Such students will be brought under vocational curriculum within a reasonably acceptable time-frame.
22. Private sector will be encouraged to establish quality vocational and technical institutions. Priority will be given to them for inclusion of MPO for the teachers of these institutes. Necessary resources, materials and instruments and financial support will also be provided.
23. A survey will be conducted about the needs of the countries that import manpower from Bangladesh. Course materials in vocational and technical education will be included accordingly. Provision will be there to train the students to have some primary skills of the languages of those countries.
24. The curricula of vocational and technical education will be constantly under review and revision in view of job markets of home and abroad.
25. In future, steps will be taken to establish a technical university.